4 capitals of Great Britain — страница 5

  • Просмотров 8494
  • Скачиваний 125
  • Размер файла 35

first service had been held on December 2, 1697; more than 10 years earlier! This Cathedral replaced the original St. Paul's which had been completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London. This building is considered one of the finest in Britain and a fine example of Baroque architecture. The Clock Tower of Wren's St. Paul's Cathedral During the Georgian period London spread beyond its traditional limits at an accelerating pace. New districts such as Mayfair were built for the rich in the West End, new bridges over the Thames encouraged an acceleration of development in South London and in the East End, the Port of London expanded downstream from the City. During this period was also the uprising of the American colonies. In 1780, the Tower of London held its only American

prisoner, former President of the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. In 1779 he was the Congress's representative of Holland, and got the country's support for the Revolution. On his return voyage back to America, the Royal Navy captured him and charged him with treason after finding evidence of a reason of war between Great Britain and the Netherlands. He was released from the Tower on December 21, 1781 in exchange for General Lord Cornwallis. In 1762 George III acquired Buckingham Palace (then known as "house") from the Duke of Buckingham. It was enlarged over the next 75 years by architects such as John Nash. It would not be until the 19th century, however, that the palace would become the principle London royal residence. A phenomenon of 18th century London was

the coffee house, which became a popular place to debate ideas. Growing literacy and the development of the printing press meant that news became widely available. Fleet Street became the centre of the embryonic British press during the century. 18th century London was dogged by crime, the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police force. Penalties for crime were harsh, with the death penalty being applied for fairly minor crimes. Public hangings were common in London, and were popular public events. In 1780 London was rocked by the Gordon Riots, an uprising by Protestants against Roman Catholic emancipation led by Lord George Gordon. Severe damage was caused to Catholic churches and homes, and 285 rioters were killed. In the year 1787, freed slaves from

London, America, and many of Britain's colonies founded Freetown in modern-day Sierra Leone. Up until 1750, London Bridge was the only crossing over the Thames, but in that year Westminster Bridge was opened and, for the first time in history, London Bridge, in a sense, had a rival. The 18th century saw the breakaway of the American colonies and many other unfortunate events in London, but also great change and Enlightenment. This all led into the beginning of modern times, the 19th century. During the 19th century the number of crimes punishable by death rose to about 200. Some, such as treason or murder, were serious crimes. The death sentence could be passed for picking pockets, stealing bread or cutting down a tree. Minor crime was punished by being sent to prisons, sometimes

transported abroad for theft, whipped in public. And nowadays there are few places that offer such a variety of sights, entertainments, educational and business opportunities, world- famous museums and theatres, and superb shopping. London draws people from all over the world. Some come to study, to work or on holiday. London is naturally a very English city, yet it is the least typical of Britain as it is very cosmopolitan, containing goods, food and entertainment, as well as people, from many countries of the world. Edinburgh During its prehistory in the Iron and Bronze Ages, man existed in the area around Holyrood, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentlands, leaving traces of primitive stone settlements. At the time of its actual foundation, it was a part of the Kingdom of

Northumbria, an Anglian kingdom on the east side of Great Britain, spanning from the River Humber to the Firth of Forth. The area surrounding Castle Rock, then known as "Lookout Hill" become the foundation point. On the hill Edwin of Northumbria a powerful Christian king founded the fortress to secure the northern part of his territory against invasion. This fortress was known in the Brythonic language as Din Eidyn, which means "Edwin's fort" after the king. As the fortess grew, many houses were re-located towards the ridge of castlehill. A layout began to form, when householders would be given the option to be granted a "toft" or stretch of garden behind the ridge. The name eventually developed through the English language into first Edwinesburch