4 capitals of Great Britain — страница 6

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and then into Edinburgh, the name it is known by today. After the murder of St. Oswald King of Northumbria, Edinburgh fell under the control of the Danelaw. Battles between the Scots and various invaders for the custody of Edinburgh Castle are a recurring theme in the history of Edinburgh. Castle Rock, a volcanic crag now crowned by Edinburgh Castle, was created some 340 millions years ago during the Paleozoic Era. With three vertical sides, the rock is a natural fortification. It is believed to have been used as a stronghold as early as the first centuries of the first millennium. When Agricola, the Roman Governor of Britain, advanced north in AD 79 he encountered the Celtic tribe of Votadinii, who controlled the Forth River valley and are thought to have based themselves around

site of Edinburgh castle. There is archaeological evidence that the Roman army had a base near Edinburgh too, and that they mixed with the locals on a daily basis. But the Romans never really mastered Caledonia and by 211 they had retreated behind Hadrian's wall, about a hundred miles to the south of the city, and by 410 they had left Britain for good. In the 7th century an English King, Edwin of Northumbria, pushed north and won control of much of lowland Scotland. He built a fort on the strategic castle rock and called it Dun Eadain meaning 'Fortress-on-a-Hill'. This fort may have later become known as either Edwin's Burgh or Eadain's Burgh (there has been much debate as to whether this is actually true) and later, obviously, Edinburgh. Hereford Mappa Mundi, featuring Edinburgh

in 1300 In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Danelaw the Scots captured the position. Then in the 12th century a small town flourished at the base of the castle known as Edinburgh, along side which another community rose up to the East around the Abbey of Holyrood, known as Holyrood, together in the 13th century these became Royal Burghs. In consequence to Edinburgh's earlier Anglo-Saxon rule, Edinburgh and the Border counties lay in a disputed zone between England and Scotland, England claiming all Anglo-Saxon Domains as English territory, and Scotland claiming all territory as far south as Hadrians Wall, the result being a long series of border wars and clashes, which often left Edinburgh Castle under English control. It was not until the 15th century when Edinburgh

remained for the most firmly under Scottish control, that King James IV of Scotland undertook, to move the Royal Court from Stirling to Holyrood, making Edinburgh by proxy Scotland's capital. As Edinburgh remained under Scottish Rule, with the nearby port and Royal Burgh of Leith, Edinburgh flourished both economically and culturally. In 1603, following King James VI's accession to the English and Irish Thrones, James VI instituted the first executive Parliament of Scotland which met in the Great Hall of Edinburgh Castle, later finding a home in the Tolbooth, before moving to purpose-built Parliament House, Edinburgh, which is now home to the Supreme Courts of Scotland[citation needed]. In 1639 disputes over the planned merger, between the Presbyterian Church and the Anglican

Church, and the demands by Charles I, to reunify the divided St. Giles' Cathedral, led to the Bishops Wars, which in turn led to the English Civil War, and the eventual the occupation of Edinburgh by Commonwealth forces of Oliver Cromwell. In the 1670s King Charles II commissioned the rebuilding of Holyrood Palace. An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the West During the last Jacobite rebellion Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobite forces, after the retreat of Jacobite forces from Derby it was re-occupied by British forces under the command of the Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. Following the defeat of Jacobites there was a long period of reprisals and pacification. At this time, the Hanoverian Monarch wished to stamp his identity on Edinburgh and new developments to the North

of the castle were named in honour of the King and his Family; George Street, Frederick Street, Hanover Street, Queen Street, Prince’s Street, Castle Street and with control of the ‘Rose’ of England and the ‘Thistle’ of Scotland these names were also allocated to Streets. The original plan for this build was to be constructed in the form of King James VI’s Union Flag and this shape can be detected when viewing the layout of the aforementioned streets from above. Out of the mess left behind by the consequences of the Jacobite rebellion came a number of Scottish Intellectuals, many from Edinburgh, including Adam Smith, who felt it was time to put the history of the Clans of Scotland behind them and that this was a time for Scotland to modernise. They promoted the idea