4 capitals of Great Britain — страница 8

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and defended to the east by a bank and ditch and eventually a stone gate. To the west, the town was protected by the meandering river Taff. Owain Glyndŵr In 15th century, town was destroyed by Owain Glyndŵr's Welsh army. The Castle lay in ruin until Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, restored the defences and castle buildings in 1423. Beauchamp also constructed the octagonal tower, now known as Beauchamp's tower. Much of the rest of the castle and walls dates to the 19th century, when the third Marquis of Bute employed William Burges to restore, refurbish and rebuild it. Black Gold transforms Cardiff In the late 19th Century, the 2nd Marquess of Bute built the Glamorganshire canal, which linked Merthyr Tydfil with Cardiff and the Cardiff docks, to take advantage of the huge

coal reserves in the area. This saw Cardiff become the biggest coal exporting port in the world, resulting in Edward VII granting Cardiff city status in 1905. The port reached its peak in 1913, with more than 10 million tons going through the port. As Cardiff exports grew, so did its population; dockworkers and sailors from across the world settled in neighbourhoods close to the docks, known as Tiger Bay, and communities from up to 45 different nationalities, including Norwegian, Somalian, Yemenese, Spanish, Italian, Caribbean and Irish, helped create the unique multi-cultural character of the area. Double birthday After going into decline in the 70's and 80's Cardiff's docks and city centre have now been regenerated. Cardiff Bay is now a thriving waterside development, and the

construction of the Millennium Stadium in the city centre helped transformed Cardiff into a true European capital city. In 2005 Cardiff celebrated its centenary as a city and 50 years as capital of Wales, and enjoyed a year-long calendar of events, festivals and parties which marked the double anniversary. Home of the Daleks Terry Nation, creator of Doctor Who’s arch-enemies, the Daleks, was born in Cardiff, and in 2005 the Daleks returned to their place of birth for the new BBC Wales series of Doctor Who. The second season of Doctor Who, starring David Tennant and Billie Piper was also filmed in and around Cardiff. A new Doctor Who spin-off series, called Torchwood, was also filmed and is set in the Welsh capital. World’s first FairTrade capital In March 2004 Cardiff was

designated as the world’s first FairTrade Capital City in recognition of its support for the scheme. To gain this status Cardiff Council had to ensure that FairTrade products are available in a number of cafes, stores and supermarkets in Cardiff, as well as serving FairTrade teas and coffees in its own canteens and meetings. Famous sons and daughters Cardiff has produced many famous names in the last century. Children’s author Roald Dahl was born in Cardiff in 1916, and the Norwegian Church where he was christened is now used as an arts centre and café. In the sports world Ryan Giggs, Colin Jackson and Dame Tanni Grey Thompson often fill the headlines, and Shirley Bassey and Charlotte Church are the city’s home grown musical divas. Captain Scott and the South Pole In 1910

Captain Robert Scott set off from Cardiff in the ship the ‘Terra Nova’ on his ill-fated trip to the South Pole. Cardiff connections to Scott include a memorial sculpture in Cardiff Bay, a memorial lighthouse erected in Roath Park and the Discovery pub in Lakeside, home to photos from the expedition. The Captain Scott room in the Royal Hotel, where he ate his farewell dinner, was also reopened earlier this year. Sporting history Cardiff has a long association with sport. In 1958 the city hosted the Britsh Empire and Commonwealth Games, now better known as the Commonwealth Games. The Empire swimming pool, however, was demolished to make way for the Millennium Stadium – which hosted the Rugby World Cup final in 1999. The stadium again made sporting history in 2005, when Wales

won the Six Nations Grand Slam Championship for the first time in over 20 years. Cardiff will also host an Ashes cricket Test match in 2009, and football matches during the 2012 London Olympic Games. So, in keeping with its dynamic character, Cardiff is noted for visionary architecture. Dip into the past at its two most extraordinary landmarks, Cardiff Castle in the centre and Castell Coch just outside the city. Both were transformed in the 19th century into Gothic dream palaces. The gleaming white Civic Centre with its domed City Hall is an early 20th-century classic. Then for the shape of the future, head for Cardiff Bay, one of the world's largest regeneration projects dominated by the new and innovative Wales Millennium Centre. Victorian edifices have been joined by chic