Ancient and modern pronunciations — страница 13

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they should say it in their own language so as not to impede the flow. An attentive teacher (who also knows her students' L1) will make a quick note of it and bring it up later, eliciting the translation from the class. If you are teaching a multi-lingual class, you can still use this column. You don’t have to know the translations. You can prompt the learners to come up with those. [19, 48] The '#' column reminds us to include successful language in feedback. Too often in correction slots the emphasis is on what went wrong. Here the teacher can write down examples of good things that happened. This is especially true if the teacher notices that the students are using a recently taught structure or lexical item, or if they have pronounced something correctly that they had

trouble with before. Other suggestions You can copy your filled-in version and hand it out to groups of students to save writing on the whiteboard. Or simply use it to help you note down language in an organized way. You can fill out separate sheets for each group of students as you listen or even for each individual student (this would obviously work best with very small classes!). You can pass them round, have students correct their own, each others, whatever. The advantage of using a set form is that by doing this, you keep an ongoing record of mistakes that can be stored and exploited for revision lessons, tests or as a filler for the end of a class. [20, 48] Exercises for the Pronunciation of Plurals for English second language One of the most difficult parts of learning to

speak English is the correct pronunciation of plural nouns and verbs. Many of these words simply add a suffix such as "s," "es" or "ed" to the original word, and this can be challenging for many English as a Second Language, or ESL, students to pronounce. The key to improving pronunciation of plurals is consistent practice and correction combined with listening. Plural Noun Pronunciation with S Sounds Plural nouns will end in either "s" or "es," and can have an "s" or "z" sound. This exercise focuses on the "s" sound, which is used in nouns that end in an unvoiced consonant sound (e.g., ducks, tops, cats). Depending on the students' native language, the biggest problem with pronouncing these words

correctly is the two consonants that follow one another, like the "k" and "s" sound at the end of "ducks." Many other languages consistently insert vowel sounds between consonant sounds, so "ks" might sound like "kuh-s" for some students. The key is to focus on flowing from one consonant sound to the next with no vowel insertion. Write the words you wish to focus on for that day's lesson on the board. Underline the consonant ending (e.g., underline "ts" in "cats") and pronounce it for the students as if it is one sound. Have each student repeat the sound. For fun, have them equate the sound to a sound effect. For example, "ts" sounds like a cymbal on a drum set. Choose a rhythm like "1 2 3

rest," and have them make the sound around the room, keeping the rhythm. When the sound is comfortable, introduce more words that end with that sound until it becomes comfortable. [11,84] Plural Noun Pronunciation with Z Sounds If a noun ends in a voiced consonant sound, it will end with a "z" sound (e.g., chairs, beds, frogs). Use the previous exercise as a guideline for this one, but with a focus on the voiced z. To compare, have students place their hands on their throats. Make the "s" sound, feeling no vibration in the throat, then make the "z" sound, feeling the throat vibrate with voice. Explain that these words will use that "z" sound. Choose words ending with a specific consonant like "d" or "g" that will

require the "z" sound when pluralized. Follow the exercise above, creating a rhythm around the room with sounds like "gz," until there is no vowel sound in between the consonants. When the students are making the sound successfully, begin adding in the rest of the word. Plural Verb Pronunciation The problem with plural verbs is similar to plural nouns; while the ending contains a vowel ("ed") the "e" is often silent. Most students will be tempted to say "walk-eh-d" instead of "walk-d," for example. The important thing is to explain to the students that while the ending is spelled "e-d," it is usually not pronounced "ed." In fact, the "d" is usually pronounced more like a soft "t."