Archaisms in literature — страница 4

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although their birth names will remain unambiguous. Careless use of retronyms in historical fiction can cause anachronisms. For example, referring to the "First World War" in a piece set in 1935 would be incorrect — "The Great War" and "14-18 War" were commonly employed descriptions. Anachronistic use of a retronym could also betray a modern document forgery (such as a description of the First Battle of Bull Run before the second had taken place). List of archaic English words and their modern equivalents This is a list of archaic English words and their modern equivalents. These words and spellings are now considered archaic or obsolescent within the current status of the English language. Given both the rapidity of change in modern English and

the number of versions used by nations and cultures, it should be borne in mind that dates are approximate and that the information here may not apply to all versions of English. The evolution of the English language is characterised by three phases. The first period dates from approximately 450 (the settlement of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes in England) to 1066 AD (the Norman Conquest). At this time the language made use of almost full inflexion, and is called Anglo-Saxon, or more exactly Old English. The second period dates from the Norman Conquest to probably c.1400 (though some books differ on when this period ends) and is called Middle English. During this time the majority of the inflections disappeared, and many Norman and French words joined the language because of the

profound influence of the Anglo-Norman ruling class. The third period dates from about 1400 to today (2006), and is known as Modern English, though until recently it was called New English. During the Modern English period, thousands of words have been derived by scholars from the Classical languages. The impact of dictionaries in the definition of obsolescent or archaic forms has caused the standardisation of spelling, hence many variant forms have been consigned to the dustbin of history. List of archaic English words and their modern equivalents Original word Origin Meaning Example Comments art form of the verb 'to be', from Old English eart present second-person singular form of the verb be. …Who may stand in thy sight when once thou art angry? (Psalm 76:7) used in

Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language astonied past participle of 'astony' from Middle English astonien < Old French estoner < Vulgar Latin *extonare = 'to thunder' to stun, amaze, or astonish; astound or bewilder …and I sat astonied unitl the evening sacrifice. (Ezra 9:4) used in Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language betwixt from Old English betweohs or dative betweoxum (between) between …He shall lie all night betwixt my breasts.(Song of Solomon 1:13) used in Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language, also used in some Southern and Appalachian dialects of the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. bilbo From Bilbao, Spain, the best known place of manufacture an obscure and seldom used word for a short sword   Bilbo is the Basque word for Bilbao.

(Bilbo Baggins is a fictional character.) bobbish from bob move up and down, dance, rebound + -ish brisk, well   Used in 1860s Bouncable unknown by smelliness a swaggering boaster   Used in 1860s Bridewell from the London prison of that name a prison   Used in 1860s (and in common current use in Nottingham where the police station attached to the Magistrates' Court is called The Bridewell) caddish from the noun cad wicked   the noun 'cad' is dying out cag-mag unknown decaying meat   Used in 1860s chalk scores unknown a reference to accounts of debt, recorded with chalk marks   Used in 1860s coddleshell unknown codicil; a modification to one's legal will   Used in 1860s Coiner unknown a counterfeiter   Used in 1860s connexion From French

"Connexion" variant spelling of connection Imagination could conceive almost anything in connexion with this place. (At the Mountains of Madness, by H.P. Lovecraft) Used in the 19th century costermonger coster comes from Costard, a type of cooking apple, monger means trader or seller a greengrocer, seller of fruit and vegetables   fishmonger, ironmonger and warmonger are among the surviving words ending in -monger cove unknown a fellow or chap It's what a cove knows that counts, ain't it, Sybil? (The Difference Engine, by Bruce Sterling and William Gibson) Used in 1860s craze Old Norse, through Old French to shatter   Used in 14th Century. A remnant survives in the phrase "cracked and crazed", also in ceramics where a glaze that has fine lines like