Archaisms in literature — страница 9

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touch of a master hand.—Daily Telegraph. The writer means albeit; he would have been safer with though. Living in a coterie, he seems to have read the laudations and not to have noticed aught else.—Times. Hence, if higher criticism, or aught besides, compels any man to question, say, the historic accuracy of the fall...—Daily Telegraph. Many a true believer owned not up to his faith.—Daily Telegraph. The controversy now going on in your columns anent 'Do we believe?' throws a somewhat strange light upon the religion of to-day.—Daily Telegraph. It is because the world has not accepted the religion of Jesus Christ our Lord, that the world is in the parlous state we see it still.—Daily Telegraph. A discussion in which well nigh every trade, profession and calling have

been represented.—Daily Telegraph. Why not? Because we have well-nigh bordering on 300 different interpretations of the message Christ bequeathed us.—Daily Telegraph. It is quite a common thing to see ladies with their hymn-books in their hands, ere returning home from church enter shops and make purchases which might every whit as well have been effected on the Saturday.—Daily Telegraph. How oft do those who train young minds need to urge the necessity of being in earnest...—Daily Telegraph. I trow not.—Daily Telegraph. The clerk, as I conjectured him to be from his appearance, was also commoved; for, sitting opposite to Mr. Morris, that honest gentleman's terror communicated itself to him, though he wotted not why.—Scott. I should be right glad if the substance

could be made known to clergy and ministers of all denominations.—Daily Telegraph. So sordid are the lives of such natures, who are not only not heroic to their valets and waiting-women, but have neither valets nor waiting-women to be heroic to withal.—Dickens. Commonly misused archaisms You who? "Thou", "thee" and "ye" As most people know, thou, thee and ye all mean "you". But they are not interchangeable, as they are sometimes used. They represent different uses of the pronoun "you". Thou "You", singular nominative. Used if the "you" addressed is the subject of the sentence. (Thou givest unto me...) Thee "You", singular accusative. Used if the "you" is the object of the sentence. (I

give unto thee...) Ye "You", plural. Used when addressing a group. (All ye, hear this...) Because, in modern English, all of those meanings are encompassed in the single word "you", they may be difficult to distinguish. It might be helpful to recall the parallels in a case-formed language such as French (e.g. "tu", "te" and "vous") Thy place or thine? Thy "Your", referring to a noun beginning with a consonant. (e.g. Set me as a seal upon thy heart.) Thine (a) "Your", used in place of "thy" with nouns that begin with a vowel. (e.g. Fetch thine arms and armour.) (b) "Yours", "that which belongs to you". (e.g. Thou hast what is thine.) Go hence and fetch him hither! The hence/hither

stable of words seems to cause problems, usually through people not knowing which is which. Hence "From here", or "from this time". (e.g. The enemy comes! We must fly swiftly hence.) Hither "To here". (e.g. Bring the wretch hither.) Thence "From there". (e.g. The mountain rumbled and fire thence issued.) Thither "To there". (e.g. It had been many years since he had travelled thither.) Whence "From where", or "from which". (e.g. The rock whence issued the spring.) Whither "To where". (e.g. Whither do you travel?) Also note that since the direction of movement (to, from) is already implied in the word, phrases like "from whence" are, strictly speaking, inaccurate, although they have passed

into common use. Wherefore Means "why". (Not "where".) Probably the most famous usage is in William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet, in which Juliet asks 'Wherefore art thou Romeo?', meaning "Why are you [named] Romeo?". Conclusion The most interesting and at the same time sophisticated process that receives the study of Linguistics is a change of a language in a course of time. Complicated word integrations, appearing and evanescence of words, phraseological units, and grammatical constructions – all this is undividable part of language progress. I can compare archaisms with an echo of ancient times, because they deliver us information about cultural life of previous generations. Archaisms also reflect an inner aspect of people consciousness.