Communication The Exchange of Information

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MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY The English and Literature Department Qualification work on speciality English philology on the theme: “Communication. The Exchange of Information” Supervisor: ___________ Gulistan 2008 CONTENTS: I. Introduction Message oriented communication. The Main Body Language Learning Principles The nature of speaking and oral interaction Communicative approach and language teaching. Chapter I. Types of communicative exercises and approaches. Warming up exercises Interiews Jigsaw tasks Chapter II. Questioning activities Values clarification techniques Thinking strategies Interactive problem solving Chapter III. Stories and poetry – painting that speaks Games as a way at

breaking the routine of classroom drill Project work as a natural extension of content based instruction (CIB) Conclusion Some Practical Techniques for Language Teaching Bibliography Introduction Message oriented communication I want you to communicate. This means that I want you to understand others and to make yourself understandable to them. These sound like the obvious goals of every language learner., but I think these simple goals need to be emphasized, because learners too often get diverted from them and fall into more of a struggle with the mechanics of grammar and pronunciation that they should. Learners can become timid about using what they know for fear of making horrible mistakes with what they don’t know. All the attention paid to the mechanics of communication

sometimes gets in the way of communication itself. In the early lessons of many language courses, students are encouraged to concentrate heavily upon pronunciation and grammar, while vocabulary is introduced only very slowly. The idea seems to be that even if one has very little to say, that little bit should be said correctly. Students can worry a great deal about the machinery of language, but they worry rather little about real communicating much of anything. Under such circumstances, learners have to think about an awful lot of things in order to construct even a simple sentence. They are supposed to force their mouths to produce sounds that seem ridiculous. They have to grope desperately for words that they barely know. They have to perform mental gymnastic trying to

remember bizarre grammatical rules. All these challenges are a fatal distraction from what skillful speakers worry about – the message that they want to convey. If early learners have to worry about getting everything correct, they cannot hope to day anything very interesting. They simply cannot do everything at once and emerge with any real sense of success. In the German original 'mttteilungsbezogene Kommunikation was coined by Black and Butzkamm (1977)0. They use it to refer to those rare and precious moments in foreign language teaching when the target language is actually used to arrange communication. À prime instance of this use is classroom discourse, i.e. getting things done in the lesson. Sometimes real communicative situations develop spontaneously, as in exchanging

comments on last night' s TV programme or introduction someone' s new haircut. The majority of ordinary language teaching situations before reaching an advanced level, however, are geared towards language-oriented communication or what Rivers calls 'skill-getting': they make use of the foreign language mainly in structural exercises and predetermined responses by the learners. Since foreign language teaching should help students achieve some kind of communicative skill in the foreign language, àll situations in which real communication occurs naturally have to be taken advantage of and many more suitable ones have to be created. Two devices help the teacher in making up communicative activities: information gap and opinion gap. Information-gap exercises force the participants to