Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia — страница 9

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universities the majority of universities receive government funding. There is a state-based system of vocational training, higher than colleges, known as TAFE Institutes, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. Approximately 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications,[83] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries.[109] Largest cities in Australia (2008 Australian Bureau of Statistics estimate)[110] Rank City Name State Pop. Rank City Name State Pop. 1 Sydney NSW 4,399,722 11 Hobart TAS 209,287 2 Melbourne VIC 3,892,419 12 Geelong VIC 172,300 3 Brisbane QLD

1,945,639 13 Townsville QLD 162,730 4 Perth WA 1,602,559 14 Cairns QLD 142,001 5 Adelaide SA 1,172,105 15 Toowoomba QLD 125,339 6 Gold Coast-Tweed QLD / NSW 558,888 16 Darwin NT 120,652 7 Newcastle NSW 531,191 17 Launceston TAS 104,649 8 Canberra-Queanbeyan ACT / NSW 395,126 18 Albury-Wodonga NSW / VIC 102,894 9 Wollongong NSW 284,169 19 Ballarat VIC 91,787 10 Sunshine Coast QLD 237,562 20 Bendigo VIC 88,031 Culture Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture. Distinctive Australian cultural features have also arisen from the country's natural environment and Indigenous cultures. Since the middle of the 20th century, Australian culture has been strongly influenced by American popular culture, particularly through television and

cinema. Other cultural influences are from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries. Australian visual arts are thought to have begun with the cave and bark paintings of its Indigenous peoples.[111] The traditions of Indigenous Australians are largely transmitted orally and are tied to ceremony and the telling of the stories of the Dreamtime. From the time of European settlement, a theme in Australian art has been the Australian landscape, seen for example in the works of Albert Namatjira, Arthur Streeton and others associated with the Heidelberg School, and Arthur Boyd. The country's landscape remains sources of inspiration for Australian modernist artists; it has been depicted in acclaimed works by artists such as

Sidney Nolan, Grace Cossington Smith, Fred Williams, Sydney Long, and Clifton Pugh. Australian artists influenced by the modern American and European art include cubist Grace Crowley, surrealist James Gleeson, abstract expressionist Brett Whitely, and pop artist Martin Sharp. The National Gallery of Australia and the various state galleries maintain Australian and overseas collections, from early in the 20th century until the present, Many of Australia's performing arts companies (see Theatre of Australia and Dance in Australia) receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council. There is a symphony orchestra in each of the states' capital cities, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, which became prominent through the singer Joan Sutherland. Nellie Melba

was her famous predecessor. Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state dance companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company. Performance of Aboriginal song and dance in the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney The Australian cinema industry began with the 1906 release of the Story of the Kelly Gang, which is regarded as being the world's first feature-length film.[112] The New Wave of Australian cinema in the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, some exploring the nation's colonial past, such as Picnic at Hanging Rock and Breaker Morant. Later hits included Mad Max and Gallipoli. More recent successes included Shine, Rabbit-Proof Fence, and Happy Feet. Australia's diverse landscapes and cities have served as

primary locations for many other films, such as The Matrix, Peter Pan, Superman Returns, and Finding Nemo. Recent well-known Australian actors include Judith Anderson, Errol Flynn, Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, Geoffrey Rush, Toni Collette, Naomi Watts, and current joint director of the Sydney Theatre Company, Cate Blanchett. Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the works of writers such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Dorothea Mackellar captured the experience of the Australian bush. The character of colonial Australia, as represented in early literature, is popular with modern Australians. In 1973, Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the only Australian to have achieved this. Colleen McCullough, Thomas Keneally,