Женщины и курение (Women’s Health and Smoking)

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Федеральное Агентство по Образованию Государственное Образовательное Учреждение Высшего Профессионального Образования Череповецкий Государственный Университет Гуманитарный Институт Кафедра Английской Филологии Специальность 031001 - филология Реферат: “Women’s Health and Smoking” Выполнила: Толоконцева Н.А. Группа: 2ФА-24 Проверила: ст.преп. Швец В.М. Череповец, 2005 Report: Women’s health

and smoking Plan: 1.  Introduction 2.  Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women 3.  History of Advertising Strategies 4.  Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women ·    Diseases: §  Lung Cancer §  Other Cancers §  Cardiovascular Disease §  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Function §  Menstrual Function §  Bone Density and Fracture Risk ·        Other Conditions ·        Health Consequences of Environmental Tobacco Smoke 5.  Smoking and Reproductive Outcomes, Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant Women ·    Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Reproductive Outcomes ·    Smoking

Prevalence and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy 6.  What Is Need to Reduce Smoking Among Women 7.     New European anti-smoking campaign 8.     Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit 9.     Conclusion 10.           The Literature List Introduction This report summarizes what is now known about smoking among women, including patterns and trends in smoking habits, factors associated with starting to smoke and continuing to smoke, the consequences of smoking on women’s health and interventions for ending and prevention. What the report also makes clear is how the tobacco industry has historically and contemporarily created marketing specifically targeted at women.

Smoking is the leading known cause of preventable death and disease among women. In 2000, far more women died of lung cancer than of breast cancer. A number of things need to be acted on to control the epidemic of smoking and smoking-related diseases among women throughout the world. Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women Cigarette smoking was rare among women in the early 20th century. Cigarette smoking became prevalent among women after it did among men, and smoking prevalence has always been lower among women than among men. However, the gender-specific difference in smoking prevalence narrowed between 1965 and 1985. Since 1985, the decline in prevalence among men and women has been comparable. Smoking prevalence decreased among women from 33.9% in 1965 to 22.0% in 1998.

Most of this decline occurred from 1974 through 1990; prevalence declined very little from 1992 through 1998. The prevalence of current smoking is three times higher among women with 9-11 years of education (32.9%) than among women with 16 or more years of education (11.2%). Smoking prevalence is higher among women living below the poverty level (29.6%) than among those living at or above the poverty level (21.6%).   Girls who initiate smoking are more likely than those who do not smoke to have parents or friends who smoke. They also tend to have weaker attachments to parents and family and stronger attachments to peers and friends. They perceive smoking prevalence to be higher than it actually is, are inclined to risk taking and rebelliousness, have a weaker commitment to