Женщины и курение (Women’s Health and Smoking) — страница 3

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has been that smoking is related to women's freedom, emancipation, and empowerment. Initiation rates among girls aged 14 though 17 years rapidly increased in parallel with the combined sales of the leading women's-niche brands (Virginia Slims, Silva Thins, and Eve) during this period. In 1960, about 10% of all cigarette advertisements appeared in popular women's magazines, and by 1985, cigarette advertisements increased by 34%. Evidence suggests a pattern of international tobacco advertising that associates smoking with success, similar to that seen in the United States. This development emphasizes the enormous potential of advertising to change social norms.   As western-styled marketing has increased, campaigns commonly have focused on women. For example, in 1989, the

brand Yves Saint Laurent introduced a new elegant package designed to appeal to women in Malaysia and other Asian countries. National tobacco monopolies and companies, such as those in Indonesia and Japan, began to copy this promotional targeting of women. One of the most popular media for reaching women—particularly in places where tobacco advertising is banned on television - is women's magazines. Magazines can lend an air of social acceptability or stylish image to smoking. This may be particularly important in countries where smoking rates are low among women and where tobacco companies are attempting to associate smoking with Western values.   A study of 111 women's magazines in 17 European countries in 1996-1997 found that 55% of the magazines that responded accepted

cigarette advertisements, and only 4 had a policy of voluntarily refusing it. Only 31% of the magazines had published an article of one page or more on smoking and health in the previous 12 months. Magazines that accepted tobacco advertisements seem less likely to give coverage to smoking and health issues. Events and activities popular among young people are often sponsored by tobacco companies. Free tickets to films and to pop and rock concerts have been given in exchange for empty cigarette packets in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Popular U.S. female stars have allowed their names to be associated with cigarettes in other countries.   Many countries have banned tobacco advertising and promotion. In 1998, the European Union adopted a directive to ban most tobacco advertising and

sponsorship by July 30, 2006. Other countries have banned direct advertising, and still others have instituted partial restraints. Such bans are often circumvented by tobacco companies through various promotional venues such as the creation of retail stores named after cigarette brands or corporate sponsorship of sporting and other events. Moreover, national bans on tobacco advertisements may be rendered ineffective by tobacco promotion on satellite television, by cable broadcasting, or via the Internet. Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women Women who stop smoking greatly reduce their risk of dying prematurely. The relative benefits of smoking ending are greater when women stop smoking at younger ages, but smoking ending is beneficial at all ages. Women who stop smoking

greatly reduce their risk of dying prematurely, and quitting smoking is useful at all ages. Although some clinical intervention studies suggest that women may have more difficulty quitting smoking than men, national survey data show that women are quitting at rates similar to or even higher than those for men. Prevention and cessation interventions are generally of similar effectiveness for women and men and, to date, few sex differences in factors related to smoking initiation and successful quitting have been identified. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a cause of lung cancer and coronary heart disease among women who are lifetime nonsmokers. Infants born to women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy have a small decrement in birth weight and a

slightly increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation compared to infants of no exposed women. A dozen diseases are waiting for women-smokers. Lung Cancer Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer among women. About 90% of all lung cancer deaths among U.S. women smokers are attributable to smoking. In 1950, lung cancer accounted for only 3% of all cancer deaths among women; however, by 2000, it accounted for an estimated 25% of cancer deaths. Since 1950, lung cancer mortality rates for U.S. women have increased an estimated 600%. In 1987, lung cancer surpassed breast cancer to become the leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. In 2000, about 27,000 more women died of lung cancer (67,600) than breast cancer (40,800). Other Cancers Smoking is a major cause of