Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 11

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can be complete (perfect form) or incomplete (continuous form). The idiomaticity of an analytical form is a characteristic of a true analytical form. An analytical form functions as a grammatical form of a word. Analytical forms are much more typical of ME. Synthetic form-building means are few in number but widely used. Some grammatical suffixes are very productive.Analytical forms comprise synthetic forms. Although sound interchange is non-productive it is extensively used through the paradigm of the irregular verbs. Though suppletive forms are found through the paradigm of very few words they are very frequently used words. So we should conclude that English cannot be called a purely analytical language. It is mainly analytical. 13. Analytical forms and their role in

form-building. It’s more productive in Modern Eng. Traditionally an analytical form is defined this way: it consists of an auxiliary word and the basic element, which is a notional word. This definition is am’biguous (двусмыслен, неоднозначн.). And for that reason some strange forms are treated as analytical: Combinations of prepositions with nouns were treated as different analytical forms: to the child was treated as the Dative case of a noun. by the child was treated as the Instrumental case of a noun. Many linguists criticized this approach to defining analytical forms and certain theories have been worked out to differentiate analytical forms and free word-combinations. 1. The theory of the splitting of functions. According to this theory in a true

analytical form the auxiliary element should be the bearer of the grammatical meaning only. It is devoid of lexical meaning. It is the notional word that is the bearer of lexical meaning. According to this approach there exist 2 types of analytical forms: complete and incomplete. In a complete analytical form the splitting process has completed and the aux.element is completely devoid of lex.meaning. e.g. In the form of the Perfect the verb to have has no meaning of possession. In an incomplete analyt.form the aux.element retains traces of its lex.meaning. e.g. The form of the Continuous where the auxiliary be retains traces (признаки) of it's meaning of the state. 2.Acc. to the second approach a true analyt.form is idiomatic in characteràthe overall meaning of the

form is not immediately dependent on the individual meaning of its constituents. It’s not a sum of meanings of its components. Besides an analyt.form also functions as a grammatical form of a single word. If we proceed (исходить из) from this approach we should conclude that such phrases as most interesting are not an analytical form, because it is not idiomatic enough. 3. Acc. to Бархударов a true analyt.form should posses a discontinuous morpheme (расчлененная морфема) which is a main distinguishing feature of an analyt.form (Блох doesn’t share this view). A discontinuous mrph. сonsists of 2 elements – an auxiliary word and the f.-b. sign of a notional word. The root-mrph of the notional word. is not included (не включ.).

According to Бархударов there are only 3 analytical forms (Perfect, Passive, Continuous): Have+en (insymbolic denotation-обозначение) in form of the Perfect. Ex. have arrived Be+en in form of the Passive Be+ing in form of the Continuous. And from this point of view such phrases as shall take, most interesting, by the child are not analytical forms. They are free word-combinations. 14. Various classifications of sent-s. A sent. is a complicated unit, is always associated with certain intonation pattern(statement, request); a sent. without intonation can’t function as a speech unit, it’s complete structurally & semantically, can function as an independ. utterance. (I)             Structural:

Sent-s are divided into simple & composite; composite sent-s are divided into compound & complex. Simple sent-s are divided into 4 major classes (their use correlates with different communicative functions): 1st class: declarative sent-s, or statements. The subject is always present and usually precedes the verb. 2nd class: interrogative sent-s, or questions. They are marked by one or more of the following criteria: ~ the aux. verb is placed in front of the subj.; ~ the initial position of an interrogative “wh”-element (what, who, which, etc.) 3rd class: imperative sent-s, or commands. Normally they have no grammatical subj., the verb is in the imperative mood. 4th class: exclamative sent-s, or exclamations. They are introduced by what / how & have no invertion of