Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 12

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the subj. and predicate. (II)           Extended / unextended (распростран./нераспростран.) A sent. which consists only of subj. & predicate – unextended. If it contains one or more secondary parts (attributes, obj., adv. modifiers), the sent. is extended. (III)         Сomplete / incomplete Complete sent. contains all structurally necessary elements: - the subject + the predicate (if it’s a 2-member sent.); - the subject + the predicate + object (if the predicate is expressed by trans. verb); 1-member sent. can also be complete and incomplete; in the imperative sent. verb is a necessary element, e.g. “Stop!” vs. incomplete (usually – in direct, coll.

speech, make no sense outside their context, e.g. “Yours”). Incomplete (elliptical) sent-s – structures in which one of the main parts (subj. or pred.) or both are omitted / ellipted. Elliptical sent-s are divided into 2 types: -     1st type: they are dependent on what has gone before (“John” may be a reply to 2 questions: “Who did it?” & “Who did you see?”). These sent-s are contextually conditioned. In other words, their incomplete structure can be restored (восстановл.) from a previous sent. This kind of ellipsis is called contextual or syntagmatic. -     2nd type: they don’t depend on what has gone before. Their structure can be restored from the paradigm of the analogous complete sent. This

incompletence is purely grammatical as the structure doesn’t depend on the previous context. This kind of ellipsis is called grammatical or paradigmatic. Can be of 2 subtypes: 1) structures that can be completed in only 1 way; 2) structures which can be completed with the help of several paradigms (Cigarette?). Meaning depends on the situation or the situational context. 15. Parts of speech and different principles of their classification. The general definition of a part of speech: it is a lexical-grammatical word class which is characterized by a general abstract grammatical meaning, expressed in certain grammatical markers. Within a part of speech similar grammatical features are common to all words belonging to this class. A part of speech is a mixed lexical-grammatical

phenomenon, because: 1) Words are characterized by individual lexical meanings. 2) Each generalized class of words (noun/verb/adj., etc) has a unifying abstract gram. meaning, for ex.: noun – substance, verb – process, adjective – quality of substance, adverb – quality of process. 3) Some parts of speech are capable of representing gram. meaning in a set of formal exponents; for ex.: the plural of nouns is expressed with suffix –s (this feature is not universal in all languages). PS are distinguished from one another by the number of wds in each class. The greatest number of wds is found in the noun & verb. The N&V correspond to the subj.&pred. of the sent., they’re usually the center of predication. Modern classification of parts of speech is traced back

to ancient Greek. Later this classification was applied to Latin and thus it found its way in modern languages. The present day classification of parts of speech is severely criticized, when it’s applied to languages the structure of which is different to the structure of the Latin language. So the criticism is easily justified. On the other hand the traditional division of words into parts of speech seems quiet natural and easy to understand & remember from the logical point of view. So it’s not the classification itself that is wrong but it must be the principles of classification that should be criticized and reviewed. Classifying a lang. from the view point of PS, there are the following principles: 1)        Semantic: the general

mean-g of a PS doesn’t coincide with a lex. or gram.mean-g of every individual word, but it’s closely connected with it. Thus the gen. mean-g of a PS is neither lex. nor gram., but it’s to be called lexical-grammatical. Ex. nouns are characterized by substantivity, verbs- actions & states, which together mean processes, adj-s- attributes of substances, etc. 2)        Morphological: it has 2 aspects: a) deals with morphol. categories (each PS possesses certain morphol. cat-s which are not found in other PS): ex. nouns- case & number , adj.- comparison, verbs- 7 categories. This aspect is more important.b) the use of form-build. affixes (deriv. affixes sometimes can be found within this or that PS only): ex. nouns- -ment, -ion,