Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 13

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-ness. But deriv. affixes may be highly confusing: ex. –ly: friendly(adj), daily(noun), kindly(adv.), possibly (modal wd) 3)        Syntactic: a) the role of a wd in a sent. (dif. synt. Functions are typical of dif. PS); b) the combinability of wds/ the syntactical distribution (распределение): ex. noun can combine with prepositions, articles, adj-s, other nouns, verbs. 4)        Functional: PS- a field that has a core & a periphery. The existing principles: The semantic approach: (based on the meaning, used in many schools). It is based on the universal forms of human thought which are reflected in 3 main categorial meanings of words: 1)substance (предметность); 2)process

(процессуальность); 3)property (свойства, качества). However, this principle is open to criticism; it doesn’t always work; it can be hard to define a categorial meaning of a word: e.g. whiteness - is it substance of a noun or property of an adjective? action – it denotes process, but it isn’t a verb. The formal approach: Only form should be used as a criterion for the classification of the p/of/sp. (Henry Sweet). They distinguished between two classes of words: 1) declinable (склоняем )- changeable forms; 2) indeclinable (static forms)- articles, prepositions. This criterion is also unreliable. It doesn’t take into account the way a word functions in the sentence. Must functions as many other verbs, or for instance shall which has a

declinable form. The main problem with this classification- Sweet didn’t manage to work out an idea of an indep. word-class with peculiar properties & he didn’t manage to devoid his class-n from the ideas of mean-g. The formal-semantic approach: Grammarians tried to take into consideration meaning, form & function. It appears that in analytical, where English belong, it’s impossible to place a word without analyzing it in the sent. in addition to the analysis of the morphological features of this word. This approach was developed by Russian linguists (Vinogradov, Smirnitsky, Ilyish). There are three principles on which this classification is based: 1.         meaning (the meaning common to all the words of a given class and

constituting its essence- сущность):e.g. thingness of nouns,process of verbs 2.         form( the morphological characteristics of a type of word): e.g. noun is characterized by the category of number, prepositions, conjunctions and others are characterized by invariability 3.         function (the syntactical properties of a type of word) a)         the method of combining with other words (deals with phrases) b)        its function in the sentence (deals with sentences) The syntactic (functional) approach: Only the syntactic function of a word should be taken into consideration as a criterion for p/of/sp

classification. 17. Controversial problems of part of speech classification: pronouns. A part of speech (PS) is a lexical gram word class which is characterized by a general abstract gram meaning expressed in certain gram markers. This definition stresses the fact that within a part of speech similar gram features are common to all words belonging to this class. All PS fall into 2 classes: notional (noun, verb, adj, adv, pronoun, numeral – cover 93% of the English vocabulary, they fill all positions in the sentence, they possess an independent notional meaning of their own) and functional (prep, conj – express relations, they never indicate objects or notions, their use is obligatory). Speaking about pronouns, we shall answer 2 questions at least: is the pronoun a separate

PS? Notional or functional? Pronouns are not a separate PS, they distribute them between nouns and adj: we, he, smb – noun pronouns; my, some – adj pronouns (Henry Sweet). Щерба – the term pronoun can be applied to noun pronouns only – the word pronoun means ‘instead of a noun’. Jespersen – syntactically pronouns function in the same way as nouns or adj, but they do not name objects or properties, they only point to them. The categorical meaning of a pronoun is that of indication, while the categorical meaning of nouns is substance and adj – is quality. Pronouns can be characterized by other features, which make them different from nouns: they cannot be used with articles or other determiners; personal, possessive (притяжат.) and reflective