Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 14

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(возвратн.) pronouns have personal distinctions while nouns and adj do not have them; personal pronouns have a case system different from that of a noun; in the 3 person singular personal, possessive and reflective pronouns distinguish in gender; relative and interrogative pronouns distinguish between personal and non-personal gender (that – which, who – whom). Thus, the pronoun is the separate PS. Pronoun is a notional PS. Majority believe that pronouns should be treated as function words: the meaning of the pronoun as a separate class of words is extremely abstract, such as cope of abstraction is typical of function words: like other function word pronouns form a closed system – the number of a pronoun cannot be extended by the creation of additional members.

Бархударов – pronouns form a special type of words – structural words – the idea is that str words in his theory occupy an intermediate position between notional and function words. 16. Composite sentences as polypredicative constructions. Types and means of connection between parts of composite sentences. Main features of the sentence: 1) expresses predication => is called a predicative unit. It’s the main characteristic of the sentence. The sentence reflects connection between the denoted situational event & reality, shows whether the action is real or unreal, desirable or not + expresses the time of the action. 2) nominates a situation or a situational event => can be called a nominative unit (but it’s not main feature – word’s feature). 3)

can be called a communicative unit as it carries this/that communicative intention which determines the communicative type of the sentence. Traditional grammar defines the S.: it’s a word or a group of words capable of expressing a complete thought. Modern linguistics (e.g. semantic syntax) “The S is a word or a group of words that nominate a situational event, express predication, and carry a communicative intention” The problem of the composite sent.: how to define it, how to know it from simple sentence. (1) the simple sent. is monopredicative, => has only 1 predicative line (center). The predicative line includes the subject + predicate. (2) the composite sent. is polypredicative => more than 1 predicative lines or centers, reflects 2 or more situational events,

and each predicative center makes up a clause of its own. Semi-composite sent. How to distinguish? “He waved his hand and went away”. – the S nominates 2 situational events but we can’t find 2 predicative centers in it as there is 1 subject & 1 clause => semi-composite (Blokh’s term) are intermediate between simple & composite. Main features of the composite sentence: 1) a polypredicative unit, 2) is characterized by a communicative wholeness => has 1 communicative intention (смысл, значение), 3) is characterized by intonational wholeness, all are interconnected, 4) characteristic of literary written style, rarely used in oral speech, in conversations. Types of composite sentences: Acc. to the type of connection of clauses we can distinguish

between complex &compound sentences. In compound sent-s the type of connection of clauses is coordination-сочинит. (i.e. syntactically the clauses are of equal rank). In complex sent-s the type of connection of clauses is subordination- подчинит. & clauses are of unequal rank (principal and subordinate). The means of combining clauses: syndetic (союзн.) & asyndetic (бессоюзн.). Syndetic => conj-s, relative pron-s (who, which), relative adv-s (where, how, when, why), phrases (as long as, in order that). Asyndetic => there are no connectives between the clauses. Some grammarians say, “the zero connector”. Classification of subord. clauses: 2 approaches: (1) shows correlation of clauses with parts of the sentence => a) the subject

clause, b) the predicative, c) object, d) adverbial, e) attributive. (2) correlates clauses with parts of speech & distinguishes: a) substantive clause – corresponding to subj., predic. & object clauses, b) adverbial clauses, c) adjectival clauses – corresponding to attribute clause. These 2 classifications correlate! 18. Word-combination (WC) and their basic types. The word 'syntax' is derived from the Greek 'syntaxis' which literally means 'composition', or 'order'. It is a part of grammar which studies ways of arranging words into phrases and sentences in order to produce speech. We communicate only with the help of sentences and it brings many linguists to a conclusion that syntax is the core, or the heart of grammar and morphology is subordinated to it as it