Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 15

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serves the needs of syntax. The main units of the syntactic level of the language are: 1) the word in its syntactic position in the sentence (a part of the sentence); 2) the phrase which is a combination of two or more notional words arranged according to the rules of a particular language; 3) the simple sentence as the minimum unit of communication; 4) the composite sentence which is a combination of two or more clauses based either on coordinate (a compound sentence) or subordinate (a complex sentence) relations; 5) the text as the highest unit of language. The type ‘noun+noun’ is a most usual type of WC in modern English. The type ‘noun in the common case+noun’ may be used to denote 1 idea as modified by another, in the widest sense (silver watch, army unit). The type

‘noun in the genitive case+noun’ has a more restricted meaning and use. The type ‘adj+noun’ is used to express all possible kinds of things with their properties. The type ‘verb+noun’ may correspond to 2 different types of relation between an action and a thing. There are also types, such as ‘verb+adv’, ‘adv+adj’, ‘adv+adv’, ‘noun+prep_noun’, ‘adj+prep+noun’, verb+prep+noun. WC consisting of 2 components may be enlarged by addition of a third component, and so forth: adj+noun (high houses) may be enlarged by the addition of the adj in front – adj+adj+noun (new high houses). The limit of the possible growth of a WC is hard to define. 19. Controversial problems of part of speech classification: adverbs. A part of speech (PS) is a lexical gram word

class which is characterized by a general abstract gram meaning expressed in certain gram markers. This definition stresses the fact that within a part of speech similar gram features are common to all words belonging to this class. All PS fall into 2 classes: notional (noun, verb, adj, adv, pronoun, numeral – cover 93% of the English vocabulary, they fill all positions in the sentence, they possess an independent notional meaning of their own) and functional (prep, conj – express relations, they never indicate objects or notions, their use is obligatory). The meaning of the adv as a PS is hard to define. Some adv indicate time or place of an action (yesterday, here), others indicate its property (quickly), others - the degree of a property (very). Adv are invariable. Some of

them have degrees of comparison (fast, faster, fastest). Adv combine with a verb (run quickly), with an adj (very long), with a noun (the then president), with a phrase (so out of things). Adv can follow a prep (from there). In a sentence they are almost always adv modifiers, or parts of it, but they may occasionally be attributes. The adv. is a PS characterized by the following features: 1)       the lex.-gram. mean. of “qualitative, quantative or circumstantial characteristics of actions, states or qualities: 2)       the category of the degree of comparison 3)       typical stem-build. affixes, as in quick-ly, side-ways, clock-wise, a-shore… 4)       its

unilateral (односторон.) combinability with verbs, adj., adv-s, less regularly with adlinks (asleep,alive) and nouns. The function of adverbial complement (дополнение), sometimes other functions 20. The grammatical meaning, the gram form, the gram paradigm. Gram meaning (GM) is a general abstract meaning which unites classes of forms or words and finds its expression through formal markers thus placing a linguistic unit in a grammatical category or a grammatical class of words (a part of speech). Grammatical meanings are more general and abstract whereas lexical meanings are usually more concrete and specific. The typological analysis of grammatical meanings reveals that they reflect not the fragments of reality but rather the structure of such fragments.

Being limited in their number grammatical meanings have a regular and an obligatory character in the language. We cannot use a notional word without expressing its grammatical meaning/meanings. For example, when we say: It has been raining for hours, the verb rain expresses one lexical meaning and seven grammatical meanings (person, number, tense, aspect, time correlation, voice, and mood). The grammatical meaning finds its expression in a grammatical form which is a means of expressing a grammatical meaning. Difference between w-form and the word: w-form may be equal to the word but at any rate it presents an isolated unit. It’s never part of a wd. W-forms- we abstract ourselves from lex.mean-g of the corresp. wd. We concentrate on the gram. mean-g it caries. Ex. speaks (it