Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 16

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shows the 3d person singular- never interested in the fact that it’s the verb of saying). Unlike a wd, the w-form is not independent , it’s always bound as a member of a corresponding set of forms, such as set of f. usually form a paradigm. There are several types of form-building in English. The main subdivision of form-building types is into synthetical and analytical. In a synthetical type a grammatical meaning is expressed within a word, in an analytical type a grammatical meaning is expressed with the help of auxiliary words (plus suffixes). The synthetical types of form-building in English include affixation (reads, shown, books, theirs etc.), sound interchange (take - took, shine - shone) and suppletivity (go - went, be -was, good - better - best}. .The only productive

type in the present-day English is affixation, but the other two types are no less important, if only because they occur in words which are most frequently used. The analytical type of form-building occupies a very important place in the grammatical structure of English as the language has evolutionized from being mainly synthetical to becoming more and more analytical, and analytical tendencies in the present day English are very strong. There exist the so-called half-analytical structures and the analytical tendencies find their reflection in many spheres of the language. 21. Controversial problems of part of speech classification: numerals. A part of speech (PS) is a lexical gram word class which is characterized by a general abstract gram meaning expressed in certain gram

markers. This definition stresses the fact that within a part of speech similar gram features are common to all words belonging to this class. All PS fall into 2 classes: notional (noun, verb, adj, adv, pronoun, numeral – cover 93% of the English vocabulary, they fill all positions in the sentence, they possess an independent notional meaning of their own) and functional (prep, conj – express relations, they never indicate objects or notions, their use is obligatory). The treatment of numerals presents some difficulties. The so-called cardinal numerals (one, two) are somewhat different from the so-called ordinal numerals (first. Second). Numerals denote either number or place in a series, numerals are invariable, as far as phrases go, numerals combine with a following noun

(three rooms, third room), occasionally a numeral follows a noun (Peter the First). In a sentence a numeral most usually is an attribute, but it can also be subject – three of them came in time, predicative – we are seven, object – I found only four. The numeral as a part of speech is characterized by: 1)       its lexico-gram. mean-g of ‘number’ 2)       the category of numerical qualification represented in opposemes like seven-seventh, nine-ninth, 3)       its unilateral combinability with nouns (three children, the third child) 4)       such typical stem-building suffixes as –teen, -ty 5)       its functioning as an

attribute, less frequently as some other part of the sent. 22. Syntactic relations between words in the word-combinations (WC). The word 'syntax' is derived from the Greek 'syntaxis' which literally means 'composition', or 'order'. It is a part of grammar which studies ways of arranging words into phrases and sentences in order to produce speech. We communicate only with the help of sentences and it brings many linguists to a conclusion that syntax is the core, or the heart of grammar and morphology is subordinated to it as it serves the needs of syntax. The main units of the syntactic level of the language are: 1) the word in its syntactic position in the sentence (a part of the sentence); 2) the phrase which is a combination of two or more notional words arranged according to

the rules of a particular language; 3) the simple sentence as the minimum unit of communication; 4) the composite sentence which is a combination of two or more clauses based either on coordinate (a compound sentence) or subordinate (a complex sentence) relations; 5) the text as the highest unit of language. WC – every combination of 2 or more words which is a gram unit but is not an analytical form of some word. The constituent elements of WC may belong to any part of speech. Syntactic relations between words in the word-combinations fall under 2 main heads: agreement and government. A – a method of expressing a syntactical relationship, which consists in making the subordinate word take a form similar to that of the word to which it is subordinate (only the category of