Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 17

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number). G – the use of a certain form of the subordinate word required by its head word, but not coinciding with the form of the head word itself. 23. Different interpretations of the meaning of the English articles. The main functions of the English articles. Nouns are preceded by atr. though much has been written about art, the theory of it is still problematic. The meaning of the art is extremely abstract and hard to define, but the main meanings can be summarized as follows: the ind art – with count nouns – the nominating meaning, to name an object; with uncount nouns – aspective meaning (esp with abstract nouns – a dull anger, after a long silence), to bring out a special abstract of the notion, expressed by a noun. The definite art: with count nouns (sing, pl)–

individualizing meaning – it singles out an object or a group of objects from all the other objects of the same class; with count nouns (sing)– the generic meaning (The cat is the domestic animal) – the noun becomes a composite image of the all class of objects; with uncount nouns – the restricting meaning – may restrict the abstract notion, expressed by a noun to a specific instance (I didn’t want to show the joy I felt), restricts the material denoted to a definite quality or locality (The water in the glass was too cold to drink – quality, The water in the lake was too cold to bathe in – location). The absence of the art. always has the nominating meaning, as it is parallel to the use of the ind art. The art. have morph and syntactical functions. MF is to serve

as a formal indicator of the noun. The presence of the art signals that what follows is a noun. The art has 2 SF: the art. separates the noun from other parts of the sentence; the art is one of the means that serve to connect sentences within a text (I’ve bought a book – correlates – The book is interesting). If we apply the theory of communication we can see that the art. has a communicating function (new and old info, theme and rhyme). The absence of the art.- new info, the def.art.- the theme of the communication. 24. The number of moods in Modern English. The grammatical category of mood has the reputation of being one of the most controversial categories. Mood is traditionally defined as a grammatical category which expresses the relation of the action to reality as

stated by the speaker. As follows from the definition mood seems to be the only morphological category which includes the category of the speaker in its definition. It means that it is one of the most speaker-oriented categories. The forms of the moods serve the needs of the speaker to present the action as real, unreal (contradicting the state of things in reality) or hypothetical. The category of mood presents the interpretation of the action by the speaker from the point of view of its relation to reality. Scholars differ greatly in the understanding of this category, its scope and, consequently, in the number of grammatical forms of the mood they find in English. This number- varies from two (in Barkhudarov's interpretation) to sixteeen (in Deutchbein's interpretation). In

our interpretation and classification of moods we shall follow the classification system of moods presented by Smirnitsky. It appears to be the most consistent because it is meaning-oriented and it also takes into consideration the difference between an analytical form and a free syntactic combination. His system of moods includes six moods: the Indicative, the Imperative, Subjunctive I, Subjunctive II, the Conditional Mood and the Suppositional mood. The Indicative mood presents the action as real from the speaker's point of view. It is the most frequently used type of mood and it has the greatest number of forms. The forms of the Indicative mood are used in two communicative types of sentences: declarative and interrogative. Suppositional mood specializes in the expression of

hypothetical actions. The comparison of such sentences as "If he turns up tell him to -wait for me" and "Should he turn up tell him to wait for me" shows that both the verbal forms present the action as hypothetical but differ in the degree of certainty which is higher in the case of Present Indefinite Indicative. The Imperative mood is used to express inducement(побуждение, стимул) to action, which means that the speaker considers the action as desirable. The use of the Imperative mood is restricted to only one communicative type of sentences - imperative sentences. The Conditional mood is built with the help of the auxiliary verbs should/would and the Infinitive of the notional verb. As in the case of Subjunctive II, the non-perfect and