Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 18

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perfect forms of the Infinitive have a temporal meaning rather than the meaning of priority. The Conditional mood expresses an unreal action which is the consequence of an unreal condition. 27. Various interpretations of the continuous forms. 3 stages can be distinguished in the evolution of views on the continuous. 1st approach – of traditional grammar. It places the continuous forms among the tense forms of the verb. That’s why – “continuous tenses” => “the tense view of the continuous” and the meaning of the continuous was defined as that of simultaneity with some other action. Those who oppose this point of view analyze the form of the perfect cont. They point out that perfect is quite alien to simultaneity, it expresses priority but as the continuous is

usually used with perf. It cannot express simultaneity, it expresses only aspectuality – an action in progress. 2nd approach was put forward by prof. Ivanova – she says the continuous renders a blend of temporal and aspective meanings => “the tense-aspect blend view”. The merits: Иванова pointed out the aspective meaning of the cont. & showed the actual connection of aspect & tense in the semantics of the verb. 3rd approach – the oppositional theory was applied by linguists Смирницкий, Ярцева, Ильиш, Бархударов – if we analyze it in terms of oppositional theory we should note the opposition between continuous and non-continuous forms. Билет 36 theoretical and practical diffic. of the study of the articles The

article is a determiner of the noun.it-s function is to define the object or phenomenon in the most general way.The peculisrity of the art, is that in the absence of other determiners.The use of the art.With the noun is obligatory.One of the main theoretical difficulties of the study of the art.its status in the system of morphology/The problem is wheather the art is a separate word.That’s the lexical unity,one of the noun determiners.the meaning of the articles:The defin.article expr the indification or individualization of the noun.The use of this art shows that the object is taken in it’s concrete individual quality.The art can be replaced by a demonstrative pronoun(look at the tree=look at this tree).The indef art refers the object to a certain clas of similar objects(we

saw a house=we saw a certain house).The absence of the art is also a disputable point.Some grammarians single out the so called zero article.Thus saying that there are 3 articles.In generaldiff uses of nouns without an art from the semantic point of view should bedividedinto 2 types:1)the art.is deliberately ommited out of stylistic considerations: in titles and headlines,various notices,in telegraphic speech(Coference starts Monday). In this cases the omitted articles can be easily restored.2)cases of traditionally fixedabsense of the art a)prepositions phrases(to bed) b)verbalphrases (to take place) c)repletion groups (day by day) d)with uncountable nouns(what awful weather).the choice of the art is closely connected with 2 types of attribute. The limiting attribute requires

the defin art. The descriptive attribute requires indefinite art or the absence of the art with uncountable nouns and nouns in the plur. 29. The category of case of English nouns It’s a form of a noun showing the relations of that noun to other words in the sent. It helps to define the syntactic function of the N. in the sent. It’s a morphological category in English, because it’s represented by dif. w-forms of one and the same noun. Most linguists regard it as such & agree that the Eng. noun has 2 distinct cases, because it has 2 distinct form cases. The genitive case- is built up by the opposition of 2 forms (the com.case & the genet.case). The form of the gen. case is marked. The formal marker is the case morpheme is represented by a number of phonol. conditioned

allomorphs [s, z, iz]. It’s characterized by a number of points limit in its use in the lang. Its mainly applied to names of human beings, but it can be used with some inanimate nouns: esp. denoting time & space relations (yesterday’s paper) and some adverbs… The common case- this form is unmarked & is represented by a zero morpheme. In plural nouns the case morpheme & the number morpheme are very often expressed by one & the same morpheme “ ‘ “: boys’ toys. In nouns that build up the plural with the help of other means but “s” ( children, women) the case morpheme is expressed separately by the suffix ‘s which follows the morpheme of number.The mean-g of the common case is very broad & extensive, it simply shows that this or that N is