Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 19

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non-genetive. It can be used in any syntactic positions in the sent. The use of nouns in the common case is very frequent (98%). The method of transformational analysis: the mean-g of gen.case: 1)        possessive (John’s car, the bird’s nest) = John has a car 2)        the subjective genitive (doctor’s advice, my husband’s arrival). Can be transformed: the doctor adviced…- the doer/subject of the action 3)        the objective mean-g (John’s punishment, surprise) 2 ways of transformation: John was punished, smb surprised John- the sufferer of the action. 4)        adverbial genitive (2 hours’ work)

5)        genitive of destination (men’s shoes) The number of cases in Modern English: there are dif. views on this problem. Historically there was one common case system for both nouns & personal pronouns in old English. Some scholars try to introduce a 3 case system. According to them nouns & personal pronouns have nominative case. Other scholars(J.Curme): find 4 cases –nominative, genitive, dative, accusative. Prof. Voroncova thinks that the category of case doesn’t exist in English because it’s not a case inflection(окончания). Билет 38 Various passive constructions in ME Passive voice: accord. to a commonly accepted definition the passive voice shows that the subject of the sentence is not the agent but the

object of the action exp-ed by the verb. The subject doesn’t act but its acted upon.(She was asked a question).Passive V is widely used in Eng. Its use is extensive not only in comparison with Russian but also with other languages. The Pass V in Eng is rich in various constructions. There are certain restrictions in the use of the passive voice. In most cases the P.V is formed with transitive verbs so the subject of the Passive constructions corresponds to the direct object of the verb- the Direct Passive.(they gave him an apple/An apple was given to him). Some verbs in Eng take 2 objects: direct, indirect(to tell,promise,show,pay,give,offer,send). 1) the direct passive-A story was told to me2)indirect- I was told a story.3) Prepositional obj. may also become the subject of a

passive constr(the doctor was send for) 4)Adverbial passive- the subj. of a passive constr may correspond to an adverbial modifier of place(the bed wasn’t slept in) 5)the complex subj- a compound verbial predicate a)with an inf- the subjunctive infin. construct or the nominative with the infin. (he is said to be a talented musician) b) with the particle-the subjunctive const. (he was seen crossing the street) c) with the noun(he was elected President) d)with an adject(he was found ill) e)with the introductory ‘it’ (it was arranged that they should come at five). The pass Voice const. is used when the agent of the action is not mentioned. Gram-ns say, that the PV contains no mention of the doer of the action-when the agent is unknown or can’t be easily stated (his father

was killed in the war). The fact that “no mention of the agent’ is of great importance. It proves, that the pass constr. is not parallel to the act const. and they serve diff purpose. Historically the pass.const. didn’t originate from the active construction. The P.V is widely used because 1) a great number of transitive verb 2) polysimy of the eng verbs, some verbs are transitive and intransitive.A great variety of passive constrs. in Eng.: the gram meaning of the combin of to be+Part2. It has 3 distinctive meanings: 1)he is respected by all his friends-denotes an action 2)the article is written by John- denotes a state which is the result of a previously accomplished action- a resultant state 3)he is very much obliged to you- denotes a state, not action. 43) The problem

of the Future Indefinite and the Future-in-the-Past in Modern English The category of tense – verbal cat, which reflects the objective category of time and expresses on this background the relations bw the time of the action and the time of the utterance (высказывание) The future tense form is analytical – made up by the auxiliary verbs shall, will and the infinitive which is the lexical part. The reasons the fut.tense is analytical: 1)        traditionally anal.form is to contain an aux.part which carries the gram.info and a lex.part which is responsible for the meaning – shall/will + inf 2)        verbs shall/will used to be modal, nowadays partially lost their modal meaning. But retained