Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 2

  • Просмотров 33433
  • Скачиваний 1923
  • Размер файла 134
    Кб

predicate. Some grammarians (Smirnitsky, Ganshina) speak of definite-personal, indefinite-personal, impersonal sentences, but it is a semantical classification of subjects, not sentences. If we compare the subject in English with that of Russian we shall find a considerable difference between them. In Russian the subject is characterized by a distinct morphological feature – the nominative case, in English it is indicated by the position it occupies in the sentence. In Russian the subject is much less obligatory as a part of the sentence than in English. In English the subject may be a syntactical word-morpheme, a gerund, or a complex, which is alien to Russian. 3. Means of form-building in modern English. The grammatical meaning finds its expression in a grammatical form which

is a means of expressing a grammatical meaning. There are several types of form-building in English. The main subdivision of form-building types is into synthetic and analytical. In a synthetic type a grammatical meaning is expressed within a word, in an analytical type a grammatical meaning is expressed with the help of auxiliary words (plus suffixes). The synthetic types of form-building in English include affixation :suffixes –s,-ed, -ing, -er, -est, -en, -ren, -ne, -m (reads, shown, books, oxen, taken, mine ,them etc.), sound interchange/ morpho-phonemic alteration – a meaningful change of vowels or consonants within a morpheme (take - took, shine - shone) and suppletivity – the extreme case of morphophon. alteration, there happens a complete phon. change of the root,

is not productive (go - went, be -was, good - better – best, I-me, we-us, she-her) .The only productive type in the present-day English is affixation, but the other two types are no less important, if only because they occur in words which are most frequently used. The analytical type of form-building occupies a very important place in the grammatical structure of English as the language has evolutionized from being mainly synthetical to becoming more and more analytical, and analytical tendencies in the present day English are very strong. There exist the so-called half-analytical structures and the analytical tendencies find their reflection in many spheres of the language. 5. Synthetic means of form-building in modern English. The grammatical meaning finds its expression in

a grammatical form. There are several types of form-building in English. The main subdivision of form-building types is into synthetic and analytical. In a synthetic type a grammatical meaning is expressed within a word, in an analytical type a grammatical meaning is expressed with the help of auxiliary words (plus suffixes). The synthetic types of form-building in English include affixation: suffixes- -s, -ed, - ing, -er, -en, -m, -ne (reads, shown, oxen ,mine, taken etc.), sound interchange/morphophonemic alteration: a meaningful change of vowels or consonants within a morpheme (take - took, shine - shone) and suppletivity: the extreme case of morphophonemic alteration, there happens a complete phon.change of the root (go - went, be -was, good - better – best, I-me, we-us,

she-her). .The only productive type in the present-day English is affixation, but the other two types are no less important, if only because they occur in words which are most frequently used. The analytical type of form-building occupies a very important place in the grammatical structure of English as the language has evolutionized from being mainly synthetical to becoming more and more analytical, and analytical tendencies in the present day English are very strong. There exist the so-called half-analytical structures and the analytical tendencies find their reflection in many spheres of the language. 4. The predicate as the main means of expressing predication. Types of predicates. The Predicate is the part of the sentence which expresses a predicative feature attributed to

the subject of the sentence. Like the subject, the predicate also carries out a triple function in the sentence: structural, semantic and communicative. Its structural function consists in establishing the syntactic relations with the subject and other parts of the sentence. The semantic function of the predicate finds its expression in attributing certain features to the subject. Its communicative function is manifested in the fact that through the predicate and the expression of predication the sentence becomes a minimal unit of communication. The predicate is 'the structural and semantic centre of the sentence’. In the structure of a simple, two-member sentence the predicate usually carries out the function of the rheme, He disappeared. According to the form of expression