Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 21
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-composite: compound and complex II. extended – unextended, IIIСomplete / incomplete Complete sent. contains all structurally necessary elements: - the subject + the predicate (if it’s a 2-member sent.); - the subject + the predicate + object (if the predicate is expressed by trans. verb); 1-member sent. can also be complete and incomplete; in the imperative sent. verb is a necessary element, e.g. “Stop!” vs. incomplete (usually – in direct, coll. speech, make no sense outside their context, e.g. “Yours”). Incomplete (elliptical) sent-s – structures in which one of the main parts (subj. or pred.) or both are omitted / ellipted. Elliptical sent-s are divided into 2 types: - 1st type: they are dependent on what has gone before (“John” may be a reply to 2 questions: “Who did it?” & “Who did you see?”). These sent-s are contextually conditioned. In other words, their incomplete structure can be restored (восстановл.) from a previous sent. This kind of ellipsis is called contextual or syntagmatic. - 2nd type: they don’t depend on what has gone before. Their structure can be restored from the paradigm of the analogous complete sent. This incompletence is purely grammatical as the structure doesn’t depend on the previous context. This kind of ellipsis is called grammatical or paradigmatic. Can be of 2 subtypes: 1) structures that can be completed in only 1 way; 2) structures which can be completed with the help of several paradigms (Cigarette?). Meaning depends on the situation or the situational context. 46) The imperative Mood – represented by one form only, without any suffix or ending. Has no person, number, tense, aspect, it’s limited to one type of sentence only – imperative sent. Usually a verb in the imperative sent has no pronoun, but may be used in emotional speech. – eq. You leave me alone! The Imp.Mood expresses a command or a request to perform an action addressed to smb, but not the action itself. As it doesn’t actually denote a specific action it has no tense category; the action always refers to the future. Aspect distinctions and voice distinctions aren’t characteristic of the imp.mood, although forms such as eq. be writing, be warned sometimes occur. The Imp.mood form coincides with the plain stem of the verb, for example – Come here! Sit down. The negative form is built by means of the aux. DO: Eq Don’t be a fool. Don’t worry. Emphatic requests\commands: eq. Do come and stay with us. Do be quiet. In commands and requests addressed to a third person or persons the analytical form let…+inf is used. When a person addressed is denoted by a personal pronoun, it’s used in the objective case Eq. Let us go together. Let him finish his dinner first. In negative sent-s the anal.forms take the particle not without an auxiliary. The anal.forms differ in meaning from the synthetic forms, because their meaning is closely connected with the meaning of the pronoun included in the form. Let us do smth – an invitation to a joint action Let him do it – the meaning of permission The imp.mood is used only in imperative sentences and can’t be used in questions. 47) The number of voices in Modern English The category of Voice expresses the relations bw the subject and the action, but according to other view Voice expresses the relations bw the subj and the obj of the action expressed by the form of the verb. Ex. John opened the door. The subj. of sent. is the doer of the action expressed by the predicate verb. In some cases the lex. character of the verb the subj. of the active construction can’t be regarded as the doer of the action. These cases are: ex. He lost his father in the war.; he broke his leg. Disagreement btw the gram. form of the verb and the lex. mean-g of the verb. Due to the lex. mean-g of the V the semantics of the construction becomes passive. In fact the subj. is not the doer, but the sufferer. Some grammarians treat these constructions as active due to the gram. form. Opposition: active – passive. Passive – marked -> pattern “be + II participle”, active –unmarked Forms of Fut.Cont, Present Perf.Cont, Past Perf.Cont, Future Perf.Cont – no parallel forms in passive. Any other voices??? -> doubts and controversy - the reflexive voice (eq.He dressed himself) – the agent and the object of the action simultaneously ; - the reciprocal voice (They greeted each other) – not 1 person; action aimed at the other member of the same group; - the middle voice (The door opened) – the form of the v is act, but the meaning is passive. The active voice has a number of mean-gs: active, passive, middle, reflective, reciprocal. Pr.