Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 22

  • Просмотров 34732
  • Скачиваний 1923
  • Размер файла 134

Ilyish “ Eng. Has several voices. The classif-n is based on mean-g only. Pr. Barhudarov calls the active voice non-passive. 41) The category of ASPECT in modern English Aspect – a gram.category which characterizes the way in which the action expressed by the verb is carries out. In Russian – 2 aspects: imperfective (несов.), perfective (сов.) Imperfective expresses an action or a state without indicating a limit beyond which this act/state can not continue - eq. я читал; Perfective denotes actions that have a limit beyond which this action can’t continue: eq. я прочитал книгу. In Russian aspect is a gram.cat. As each aspect has a certain meaning and form to express this meaning. There are certain markers of each aspect – eq.

делать-сделать. As the Eng.language grammarians of the past didn’t find aspective distinction of the v., instead they spoke about 4 groups of tenses: indefinite, continuous, perfect, perfect-continuous The majority of grammarians believe the Eng.verb has aspect. They admit that this gram.category may be expressed: ·          lexically aspect is expressed by the lex.character of the v. The verb falls into 2 groups: 1)        terminative: apply a limit beyond which the action can’t continue (to break, to open); 2)        non-terminative: the action may go on indefinitely (to love, to sit). Most English verbs are polysemantic and may be terminative in

one meaning and non-terminative in another. It’s never shown formally. There is no marker of belonging to this aspect. The meaning is clear from the context. ·          grammatically an opposition of corresponding forms (take – be taken) 1)        common – the form of the common aspect isn’t marked; 2)        continuous – is marked by the discont.morpheme be + ing . The terms used to describe aspect are not stable (progressive - perfective; generic – temporally) The difference bw the aspect forms isn’t temporal. The tense is the same with both forms. The cont.aspect has a specific meaning – it’s used for incomplete actions that are in progress at

the moment under consideration or at a certain period: eq He was studying at 5 o’clock. The common aspect shows the action in a general way, may denote a complete/incomplete action but the form doesn’t state it. Prof.Barhudarov: common aspect = non-continuous. Common aspect may denote: 1)a momentary action (eq she dropped the plate) 2)a recurrent/repeated action (eq.I get up at 7 o’clock every day) 3)an action occupying a long period of time (eq.he lived in St.-Pb from 1940 to 1965) 4)an action of unlimited duration (eq.The Volga flows into the Caspian Sea) 48) Functional sentence perspective - actual division of the sentence; one unit contains given information (supplied by the context), the other – new info for the sake of which the sentence has been uttered or written.

The theory of the division into 2 units, in accordance with the message they convey, is known as the actual division of the sentence \ funct.sent.perspective. Ian Firbas (Czech): the info known from the context – theme; new info – rheme. Michael Halliday: given (данное) - new(новое); Charles Pocket: topic (называние)- comment(толкование) In European languages – new info – at the end of the sentence The group of the subj.(together with attr-s) generally, but not always coincides with the theme, and the group of the predicate coincides with the rheme. The most important piece of new info occupies the end position of the sent Eq. The girl told him everything ↑Theme Rheme ↑ ↑ (the most important part) But English has a strict

word-order, it has special means of expressing the rhemes: ·          Logical stress (only in oral speech); ·          The passive voice helps to reverse w-order and makes it possible to place new info at the end of the sentence; ·          The indef.article / no article with certain nouns: eq. The door opened and an old man came into the room; She bought an unusual old ring; ·          Construction with an emphatic “it”: eq. It was to Paris that he went – we can emphasize any part of the sent. ·          There is / there are;