Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 23

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·          W-order within certain parts of the sentence eq. give smb smth give smth to smb ·          In adj-s: young, old, little – form one sense-group with the noun. If some adj-s are before these 3 words you want to emphasize these adj-s: eq. ambitious young man He is a young ambitious man (though young but ambitious) ·          Particles only,even There are other means of expressing the rheme, lexical or grammatical. During the past few years the theory of the actual division of the sentence has been criticized for its binary character. It isn’t always possible to divide a sentence exactly into 2 parts. It’s enough only to establish

the center/focus of info. The means of expressing theme/rheme depend on the gram.structure of the given language 26. Principal parts of the sentence. Their general characteristics. The subject and the predicate constitute the backbone of the sentence: without them the sentence would not exist at all, whereas all other parts may or may not be there, and if they are there, they serve to define or modify either the subject or the predicate, or each other. So the subj. & the predicate are the main 2 parts on which basic sent-s are built. The can be accompanied by other wds & usually are, but this doesn’t change their status of the main parts of the sent. Some linguists call S+Pr- a clause to distinguish from a w-group (a w-g may be defined as a logical & gram.

combination of 2 or more notional wds which don’t form a sent. And the sent. may be defined as the basic unit of communication, grammatically organized & expressing a complete thought. It’s characterized by predication- the correlation btw utterance & reality). The subject is one of the 2 main parts of the sentence: 1)    It denotes the thing whose action or characteristic is expressed by the predicate; 2)    It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence. It may be expressed by different parts of speech, the most frequent ones being: a noun in the common case, a personal pronoun in the nominative case, a demonstrative pronoun occasionally, a substantivized adjective, a numeral, an infinitive, and a gerund. It may also be expressed

by a phrase. The predicate is one of the 2 main parts of the sentence: 1)    It denotes the action or property of the thing expressed by the subject; 2)    It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence. Types of predicate: Predicates may be classified in 2 ways, one of which is based on their structure (simple or compound), and the other on their morphological characteristics (verbal or nominal). Structural classification: 1.    simple predicate (verbal and nominal) 2.    compound predicate (verbal and nominal) Morphological classification: 1.    verbal predicate (simple and compound) 2.    nominal predicate(simple and compound)   Билет 34 Predicativity. Means of

expressing. The main categories of the sentence are predicativity, modality and negation. Predicativity is a category which refers the nominative contents of the sentence to reality V.G.Gak points out three main approaches to the understanding of predicativity: logical, denotational (semantic) and formal (syntactic). In the logic-oriented syntactic theories predicativity is defined as an act of attributing certain features to the subject (predicativity presents a combination of two components of thought: the subject of thought and the predicate of thought which denotes a property, attributed to the subject by the predicate). In the denotational (semantic) approach predicativity expresses the relation of the sentence to the concrete situation of reality. From the syntactic point

of view predicativity is defined as an establishment of syntactic relation between the subject and the predicate of the sentence carried out with the help of certain morphological categories. These three approaches are not contradictory, they just reflect the manysided nature of the phenomenon and the possibility to analyze its essence from different aspects. Predicativity involves establishing subject-predicate relations which, in its turn, is accomplished through the grammatical categories of tense, mood, number and person. Predicativity takes into consideration two aspects of the sentence: semantic, or denotational (the nominative contents, or the situation of reality expressed by the sentence) and syntactic (the establishment of subject-predicate relations carried out with