Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 24

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the help of certain grammatical categories). In peripheral structural types of sentences, such as one-member nominative sentences predicativity is expressed by the intonation (Early spring. London at night). The expression of predicativity in the sentence is usually referred to as predication. Scholars differentiate between primary and secondary predication and also between explicit (ясно выражен.) and implicit types of predication. Primary predication establishes subject-predicate relations and makes the backbone (основа) of the sentence. It is expresses by the finite form of the verb. E.g. Cranes are flying. Secondary predication is contained in gerundial, infinitival, participial constructions, detached (отсоедин.) parts of the sentence. Such

structures name an event but do not place it in time, e.g. I saw cranes flying. Structures of secondary predication cannot function as autonomous sentences and they are related to the objective reality only through the main predicative line of the sentence. From the point of view of their derivational history these structures are the result of syntactic transformation of two simple sentences and joining them into one. E.g. I saw cranes. The cranes were flying. — I saw cranes flying. *Functional words Here belong: ·          the article expresses the specific limitation of the substantive functions ·          the preposition expresses the dependencies and interdependencies of substantive

referents ·          the conjunction expresses connections of phenomena ·          the particle unites the functional words of specifying and limiting meaning. To this series, alongside other specifying words, should be referred verbal postpositions as functional modifiers of verbs, etc. ·          the modal word expresses the attitude of the speaker to the reflected situation and its parts. Here belong the functional words of probability (probably, perhaps, etc.), of qualitative evaluation (fortunately, unfortunately, luckily, etc.), and also of affirmation and negation ·          the interjection

is a signal of emotions 30. Notional words and function words in Modern English. Parts of speech are traditionally subdivided into notional & functional ones. Notional parts of speech have both lexical & grammatical meanings (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, statives, pronouns, modal words). Functional parts of speech are characterized mainly by the grammatical meaning while their lexical meaning is either lost completely or has survived in a very weakened form. Functional parts of speech—the article, the preposition, the conjunction. Notional parts of speech are characterized by word-building & word-changing properties; functional words have no formal features & they should be memorized as ready-made units (but, since, till, until). Another most

important difference between functional & notional parts of speech is revealed on the level of sentence. Where every notional word performs a certain synthetic function while functional words have no synthetic function at all. They serve as indicators of a certain part of speech (to + verb; a, the + noun). Prepositions are used to connect 2 words & conjunctions to connect 2 clauses or sentences. Ilyish => Some grammarians think that words should be divided into two categories on the following principle: notional words denote things, actions and other extra-linguistic phenomena functional words denote relations and connections between the notional words This view is shaky, because functional words can also express smth extra-linguistic: e.g. The letter is on the table.

The letter is in the table. (diff. prepositions express different relations between objects) The match was called off because it was raining. (the conjunction because denotes the causal connection between two processes). Some words belonging to a particular part of speech may perform a function differing from that which characterizes the p/of/sp as a whole. e.g. I have some money left. (have – a notional word) I have found a dog. (have – an auxiliary verb used to form a certain analytical form of the verb to find, i.e. it is a functional verb) Билет 40. Classification of sentences based of their structure. The structural aspect of the sentence deals with the structural organization of the sentence, it reveals the mechanisms of deriving sentences and structural types of