Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 4

  • Просмотров 33452
  • Скачиваний 1923
  • Размер файла 134

are non-productive. The number of suffixes is small, but the frequency of their use is high. Many English words are characterized by the absence of any inflectional suffixes. The analytical type of form-building occupies a very important place in the grammatical structure of English as the language has evolutionized from being mainly synthetical to becoming more and more analytical, and analytical tendencies in the present day English are very strong. 8)Classific-n of subord. clauses: 2 approaches: (1) shows correlation of clauses with parts of the sentence => a) the subject clause, b) the predicative, c) object, d) adverbial, e) attributive. (2) correlates clauses with parts of speech & distinguishes: a) substantive clause – corresponding to subj., predic. & object

clauses, b) adverbial clauses, c) adjectival clauses – corresponding to attribute cl. These 2 classifications correlate!!! 9. The subject matter of theoretical grammar. The grammatical structure of the language. Language - is a means of forming and storing ideas as reflections of reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. Language incorporates 3 constituent parts which form a unity. ·          Phonological ·          Lexical ·          Grammatical systems The grammatical system is studied by Grammar. Grammar- is the structure of the language. All lang-s have grammar. Theoretical grammar is the science of the structure of

the lang. It’s a part of the ling. theory & exists for those lang-s that have been theoretically investigated. Parts of grammar: morphology, syntax, phonology, semantics. 2 main aims of the course: 1) to provide a description of the gram. structure of the lang. as an organized system.2) to look analytically at the unit making a gram. struct. of English; to provide a critical review of the existing scientific theories. The grammatical system of a language helps arrange lexical units into coherent utterance (членораздельное высказывание): it expresses a certain complete thought and is marked at all the lingual levels: phonetic, lexical, the level of combinability, grammatical level. In speech words are connected into utterances, that are built up

sent-s. Means that form gram. structure: 1) word-change (I see/saw a book). 2) word-order (The dog beat the man./The man beat the dog.) 3) functional words: prepositions, articles, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions (He lives in/outside London.) 4) intonation (They are students. They are students?really?) In one sent. all the 4 means, or 2 or 3 may be used. The main unit of the grammatical system is the grammatical category. The grammatical category is an opposition of at least two forms of one and the same lexical unit based on a certain general meaning which is more abstract than the meaning of the members of the opposition. It’s the unity of form & mean-g. The grammatical form is the lexical nucleus + a grammatical marker. Sometimes they are referred to as word forms

(словоформы) The grammatical meaning is that which distinguishes one member of a paradigm from another. Another approach to the analysis of language as a kind of system, language can be looked upon as a hierarchy of levels: Level of text, it's the main linguistic unit. Phrasemic level (Phrases are word combinations, they nominate complex phenomena) Leximic level (Words are nominative units, because they nominate things and phenomena. They are built up by morphemes.)Morphemic level (Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units built up by phonemes or one phoneme.) Phonemic level (Phonemes are meaningless units, their function is differential.) 2 levels are central: words level and sentence level. They are studied by morphology and syntax. Thus, morphology deals with

morphemic structure and combinability, classification of words. Syntax - with sentences. 49. Cohesion as the main text property and means of expressing cohesion in English Cohesion is the main property of a text. The concept of it was first developed by Michael Halliday. It’s the relations existing among the sentences & clauses of a text. They are signaled by certain gram.& lex. means that are called cohesive. They mark which sentences are related & in what manner. It’s not a sufficient condition for the creation of the text. Cohesion is characterized by 2 types of relation: 1) logical-semantic, 2) anaphoric. Each of them have various gram.& lex.-gram.means of expressing these relations. 1)        between sent-s in a