Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 5

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paragraph can be of different types: of cause & consequence condition, time, concession… They may be implied or explicitly expressed. Ex. She didn’t go to school. She had been ill for 2 days. The can be expressed with the help of conjunctions (because,etc.) 2)        between 2 or more items in cohesive sent-s, which refer to the same thing. These items often form cohesive chains. Text cohesion & its relations may be realized through dif. means: -           Lexical: the repetition of the item, the use of synonyms, words of the same root. -           Lexical-grammatical: a) pronouns of dif. classes (he, she, they…); b) articles

(“a\an” points to the center of communication; “the” – anaphorically used) -           Grammatical (the order is connected with actual division of the sent. The rheme of the previous sent. becomes the theme of the following one: ex. I saw a man. The man was tall.) Word-order as a syntactic means of sent. connection shows that the structure of the sent. depends on the structure of another. -           Conjunctions/ conjunct. words ( join not only composite sent., but also utterances within a text. Ex. Then, there…) -           Incomplete sent-s of the sintagmatic type can be understood with the help of the context. 50.

Means of expressing gender in Modern English It’s doubtful whether the grammatical category of gender exists in Modern English. Gender doesn’t find regular morphological expression. The distinction of male, female and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun: Masculine (names of male beings) - boy, man, husband, cock, bachelor Feminine (names of female beings) – girl, woman, wife, cow, hen Neuter (names of inanimate objects) – table, house. Gender may be expressed by word-formation: a)         feminine suffixes –ess ( actress, hostess, tigress), -ine (heroine), -ette (usherette) b)        compounds of dif.patterns: 1. N+N stem (boy-friend-girl-friend; a Tom-cat- a Tabby-cat; a

doctor-a woman-doctor; a landlord- a landlady); 2. Pronoun+ N (a he-wolf- a she-wolf; a he-cousin-a she-cousin); 3. oppositions of lexemes ( niece-nephew, bull-cow, girl-boy). From the point of view of gender distinctions English nouns can be divided into 2 groups: person-nouns(neuter) & non-person nouns ( which are subdivided into feminine & masculine), but this opposition is not absolute and doesn’t embrace the whole class of nouns. There are a lot of nouns in English, that belong to the so-called “common gender” (person, cousin, parent, president, friend, doctor). There are also some traditional associations of certain nouns with gender: a)         moon and earth are referred as feminine, sun- as masculine.

b)        the names of vessels (ship, boat, ice-breaker, steamer) are referred to as feminine. c)         the names of vehicles (car, carriage, coach) may also be referred to as feminine, especially by their owners. d)        the names of countries, if the country is not considered as a mere geographical territory, are referred to as feminine. All these arguments speak in favour of treating the category of gender in English nouns as not a purely grammatical, but a lexico-gram. category, because gender finds a lexical (special suffixes & lexemes) and a gram. expression in the language ( replacing nouns by personal pronouns) 51. The problem of homonymity in the system

of English moods The category of mood in the present English verb has given rise to so many discussions and has been treated in so many ways, that it seems hardly possible to arrive at any more or less acceptable conclusion. The only points in the sphere of mood which haven’t been disputed are the following: 1) there is a category of mood in Modern English ( Mood- is the grammatical category of the verb, which expresses the relation of the action denoted by the verb to reality from the speaker’s point of view); 2) there are at least 2 moods in the modern English verb, one of which is the indicative. (The indicative mood is the basic mood of the verb. Morphologically it’s the most developed system including all the categories of the verb. Semantically it’s a fact mood. It