Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 6

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serves to present an action as a fact of reality. It’s the most objective of all the moods. It conveys minimum personal attitude to the fact: Ex. Water consists of oxygen.) Linguists differ greatly in the understanding of this category, especially in the number of grammatical forms of the mood they find in English. Thus, Smirnitsky, Vasilevskaya, Akhmanova find 6 moods (‘indicative’, ‘imperative’, ‘subjunctive1’, ‘subjunctive2’, ‘conditional’ and ‘suppositional’), Ilyish, Ivanova find only 3 moods ( indicative, imperative, subjunctive), Barkhudarov and Shteling distinguish only the ‘indicative’ and the ‘subjunctive’ moods. Max Deutschbein finds 16 moods. Such a variety of opinions lies in the complexity of the category itself and also 2 other

phenomena. The first is the problem of drawing a borderline between polysemy and homonymy. Both permeate (пронизывают) the structure of the English language at all levels and sometimes the borderline between them is hard to draw. Ex. He stopped doing it. – He wish he stopped doing it. (here me can’t say clearly, if it’s one polysemantic form or two morphological homonyms). The other reason for the controversy of opinions about the scope of the category of mood is the fact that the grammatical category of the mood is a component of the functional-semantic category of modality- a complex & heterogeneous category, which includes other means of expressing various modal meanings. Some linguists include the combination of modal verbs with Infinitive into the system

of grammatical moods and in this case the number of moods grows considerably. 53. Controversial problems of the part of speech classification: VERBALS   The verb has finite & non-finite forms, the latter are called verbals. They have some features in common with the finite forms, but also some peculiarities of their own. They don’t express person, number or mood. But like the finite forms the verbals have aspect (infinitive), correlation and voice distinctions. There is a present & a past tense in the system of verbals. There are 3 verbals in English: the participle, the gerund and the infinitive. In Russian we also have three non-finite forms (причастие, деепричастие, инфинитив), but they don’t fully coincide with those in the

English language. Lexically non-finites don’t differ from finite forms. Grammatically the difference between them lies in the fact that they denote a secondary action, a process related to that expressed by the finite form. The characteristic traits of the verbals are as follows: 1)                            They have a double nature, nominal & verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund & the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a noun. The verbal meaning of “action, process” is presented as some kind of “substance” (gerund, infinitive), or

“quality” (participle). 2)                            They have some peculiar morphemes: -ing (gerund & participle I); -(e)d, -(e)n (participle II), to (infinitive). 3)                            Syntactically the verbal character of the non-finites is manifested mainly in their combinability. They form connections with adverbs, nouns, pronouns (denoting objects of action) like finite verbs, and they connect with finite verbs, like nouns or adverbs. They are very seldom used as predicates, but they are used

in almost any other function in the sent. 52. The theory of speech acts Making a statement may be the paradigmatic use of language, but there are all sorts of other things we can do with words. We can make requests, ask questions, give orders, make promises, give thanks, offer apologies, and so on. Moreover, almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising. The theory of speech acts is partly taxonomic (классифицированная) and partly explanatory. It must systematically classify types of speech acts and the ways in which they can succeed or fail. It must reckon with the fact that