Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 9

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Vorontsova) are of opinion that Modern English possesses analytical forms of the imperative mood for the first and the third persons build up with the help of the semantically weakened unstressed let, as in Let us go, Let him come…Prof. Ilyish emphasizes that the “let-constructions” are therefore not in an way morphological phenomena. They belong to syntax. 10. Syntax as part of Grammar. Main Units of English syntax. There’s a debate about the precise (точный, определенный) status of syntax as a part of grammar. 1)        Some linguists state that it should deal with the function and the formation of word-groups within the sent-s. This approach is characteristic of early English syntax (18-19th cent.), which was

concerned only with analysis of word-groups, their structure and relations between their elements. 2)        Other linguists think that syntax should study only the structure of sent-s. 3)        There’s also a group of scholars who think that syntax should deal with the structure of both word-groups and sent-s. It is the most reasonable one and has actually prevailed in modern linguistics. Смирницкий: The analysis of the sentence structure must be regarded as the main problem of syntax; while the word-groups’ is secondary. ·    Joining the words into word-groups is only the 1st step which precedes the formation of a sentence. ·    A word-group is not complete

either structurally or semantically => it can’t be used as a unit of communication. ·    A sent. can function as an independent utterance, but a word-group functions only as an element of a sent. Therefore, sent-s are units of speech, while word-groups are bricks in a sentence structure. The fundamental feature that distinguishes a sent. from a word-group is that sent. is always associated with a certain intonation pattern (it’s either a statement, or request, etc.) A sent. without intonation can’t function as a unit of speech; it remains a mere combination of words. Basic English sentence patterns contain a verb in its finite form. The presence of a verb in a sent. is characteristic not only of English, but also of all other European lang-s. Sent-s

without verbs are short and convey only fragmentary information, the thought can’t be developed and elaborated unless there’s a verb in the sent. When the noun and the verb in the finite form follow each other in the sent., they become the subject and the predicate – the 2 main parts of which basic sent-s are built. They can accompanied by other words, and usually are, but this doesn’t change their status as the main parts of the sent. For this reason the combination of subject & predicate is excluded by many linguists from the domain of word-groups. Some linguists suggested calling this combination a clause(элемент.предложение) to distinguish it from a word-group. In most general terms, a word-group is a logical and grammatical combination of 2 or

more notional words which do not form a sent. A sentence may be defined as the basic unit of communication, grammatically organized and expressing a complete thought. It is characterized by predication (correlation between the utterance & reality). The most universal means of expressing predication is intonation; under certain circumstances (a broader context) any word-gr. may become a sent. But in most cases predication is conveyed through the finite form of the verb (which expresses person, number, mood, tense, aspect, time correlation, voice). Narrative analysis studies lexical & grammatical means which help to organize the structure of a text. The part of narrative analysis, which is concerned with gram. means, is called text grammar. So, these successive syntactic

units form an hierarchy in the following order: Word-groups => sentences => paragraphs 12. Text grammar as part of linguistics. Basic units. Text grammar is a rather new branch of linguistics. It deals with the text. It considers the text the highest unit of speech. If we consider isolated sentences in a discourse, we find that it’s very rare that one sentence expresses the complete idea, which is clear without any context. Text is an ordered sequence of sentences combined of various types of logical, lexical and grammatical cohesion conveying structurally organized info. Text is a product of oral and written speech. Galperin recognizes the existence only of written text. Those who studied the text as a unit came to the conclusion that a text as a linguistic unit has its