Society as a system — страница 4

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identifies three types of human society: non-industrial, or traditional, industrial and post-industrial, or modern. In non-industrial society the determining factor of its development is agriculture, in industrial – industry and in post-industrial – information (theoretic knowledge). The other famous triads are a conception of pre-modern, modern and post-modern societies suggested by S. Crook and S. Lash; a theory of pre-economic, economic and post-economic societies suggested by a Russian theorist V.L. Inozemtsev, a theory of the first, second and third waves of civilization suggested by O. Toffler etc. Theories of the society’s origin There are a lot of theories of the society’s origin; some of them are rather disputable. For instance, in “spontaneous” sociology one

can distinguish three hypotheses: 1) a natural one which is based on the proposition that labour made man and turned a crowd to a cultural entity of producers; 2) a divine theory says that God made man and bequeathed him the material world and moral law; 3) a cosmic theory states that some from another planet made man and manipulated human development to achieve their laboratory purposes. But these theories can’t explain the essence of the socio-genetic mechanism which is necessary to create a social organization. Of modern scientific theories of the society’s origin the distinguished ones are instrumental, sexual, gender, cratic and semantic conceptions. Instrumental conception assigns a primary importance to man’s ability to make a quick comprehension and consideration

that resulted in inventing specialized instruments to satisfy man’s needs. Man invented specialized labour tools – instruments. By increasing labour efficiency with tools people came to consolidation of the system of labour division and to widening of economic differentiations. A social organization emerged and started developing. Sexual conception is based on man’s physiological characteristics such as the ability to reproduce posterity (i.e. babies) all the year round. It results in spontaneous, non-controlled way of natural reproduction that might be dangerous for survival of the community. Fixing control over birth rates is linked with formation of families and emergence of norms regulating sexual and other relations between members of the community. Gender conception

takes into account the distribution of social roles among genders. As women possess a biological monopoly for gender reproduction, men make an artificial counterbalance in the form of male monopoly to establish order. The theorists of feminism believe that at the moment an agreement on how to distribute women is reached by men, a social organization as a community with certain rules of living together emerges. Cratic conception rests on the general theory of systems and deducts emergence of the society from development of the governing subsystem. People are differentiated by their strength and intellect that’s why some individuals manage to capture the role of a leader who can keep the community’s important resources under control. In due time leaders begin to form and

consolidate the system of rules to respect leaders, transfer power, distribute privileges among other members of the community etc. resulting in emergence of a social organization. Its basis is made up with norms keeping and maintaining the relations of inequality. Semantic conception is built on development of communicative means within a human group. Group interaction can be achieved with the help of the language. Working out definitions and symbols, coming to an agreement on rules of understanding the language signs, making a more active use of the language, people start communication. It results in emergence of the system of arranged or agreed upon collective interactions and particular group functions, thus the society is formed. BASIC CONCEPTS Country – a part of the

globe that has definite territorial fronties and possesses state sovereignity. Cratic conception – a conception which deducts emergence of the society from development of the governing subsystem. Gender conception – a conception which takes into account the distribution of social roles among genders. Instrumental conception – a theory that assigns a primary importance to man’s ability to make a quick comprehension and consideration that resulted in inventing specialized instruments to satisfy man’s needs. Semantic conception – a theory built on development of communicative means within a human group. Sexual conception – a conception based on man’s physiological characteristics such as his ability to reproduce posterity all the year round. Society – a group of